Acid is a chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce
hydrogen ions, H+ or
hydroxonium ions, H3O+.
Properties of acid:
- React with bases to form salts and water
- React with reactive metals to form salts and hydrogen gas
- React with carbonates to form salts, water and carbon dioxide gas
- Turn moist blue litmus paper red
- Have pH values less than 7
Basicity of an acid is the number of ionisable of hydrogen atom per molecule of an
acid molecule in an aqueous solution
- Base is a substance which can react with an acid to form salt and water only.
- Base that can dissolve in water is known as alkali.
- An alkali is a substance which ionizes in water to produce free moving hydroxide
- Alkaline properties:
- React with acids to form salts and water
- Produce ammonia gas when heated with ammonium salts
- Turn moist red litmus paper blue
- Have pH values more than 7